To date only a little research has been done to scientifically and conclusively prove the value and effectiveness of yoga in our lives. However, many people have experienced positive and beneficial effects for themselves. The claims that yoga can make us healthier, more peaceful, more alert and better people as a whole, demand that more research be made into the various techniques and their application to our lives. This is especially so since no one has claimed that, practiced properly and under expert guidance, yoga has any deleterious effects. Certainly no scientific evidence has shown this.
To gain a correct perspective of the effects of yoga we must view the practices in their totality. It is not correct to take one asana and to research only a few physical parameters. We have to study as much data as we can in order to draw definite and repeatable conclusions. Comparison of the mental and physical correlates as well as the personality before and after is required. That is, we must judge our objective data in relation to the subjective experience of the practitioner.
An example of the opposite of this approach to research would be that of a scientist who finds certain biochemical results in a certain asana. If this result seems to be deleterious purely from the point of view of the data, for example, an increase in stress hormones, then we may be justified in supposing that we should not practice such an asana. However, what if the practitioner feels better afterwards despite what the chemical data states? Then the data has to be judged in this light.
Asanas and pranayama have a wide range of effects on the mind and body and have to be selected according to individual needs. Some people need their hormones turned up, some need them turned down. Machine data is only a reflection of the psychophysiology we are experiencing. One parameter may have two opposite, yet valid, interpretations. Thus we have to view the whole picture. In this way we can better judge and evaluate yoga's role in order to lay down guidelines as to the best techniques in a wide variety of situations, both in health and disease.
The work of K.N. Udupa, director of the Institute of Medical Sciences, Benares Hindu University, Varanasi (India) is an important step in terms of coming close to the criteria of whole research. He states:
"The practice of yoga in general influences both the body as well as the mind. Therefore the methodology of evaluation of the effects of yogic practices needs an evaluation of these aspects."*1
Udupa has conducted several studies into asanas and pranayama, meditation, and the combinations of these practices in terms of their effects on the body and the mind.
When studied in terms of the effects of a large group of asanas practiced over 6 months, the following data was obtained:*2
Psychological testing was also performed and the following results were found:
Specific asanas were also tested individually so as to ascertain whether there were any specific benefits to be gained.*3 These included sirshasana, sarvangasana, halasana, bhujangasana, shalabhasana, mayurasana and paschimottanasana. Of these, sarvangasana had the most dramatic effects:
All the asanas measured individually showed that they had the capacity to lower blood sugar and blood fat levels.
Ujjayi was practiced for only 7 minutes and this was followed by 5 minutes of rest before starting 10 minutes of bhastrika. This regime was practiced over 6 months and showed:
Measurements were made at a 10 day Buddhist vipassana meditation course where practitioners meditated for 8 to 10 hours per day. The following was found:
These findings correlate with a physically calm and quiet body while mentally and neuro-physiologically they were more active, alert and creative. Corresponding findings in the EEG readings seem to confirm this. It appears that by keeping the body still and practising the technique, energy is made available for inner awareness.
The effects of asana and pranayama on the body when compared with meditation are opposite. Therefore it is possible that by combining the two groups we can achieve a third state which blends the two components and creates balance and harmony in the body. Udupa states:
"The combined practice of selected asanas, pranayama and relaxation appear to be more useful... most of the asanas and pranayama produce bodily effects like vitalisation of endocrine functions and metabolic corrections. On the other hand meditation makes an individual more alert and aware as is evident from increased blood levels of different neuro-humors (chemicals secreted by the nervous system) and the related enzymes... (meditation) reduces the bodily stress which is evident from the reduced blood level of Cortisol and a lowered rate of urinary excretion of nitrogen. Therefore such practices may prove useful for persons suffering from anxiety states and depression."*6
By combining the three groups of practices into our daily sadhana we not only affect the muscles and joints but we stretch and massage our body in the process, even at the molecular level. Thereby we exercise and keep our body fit, well tuned and oiled. This research provides a good first step for our exploration deeper into the mechanisms of yoga.